In addition to their use in outdoors pursuits, backpacks are sometimes used in other sports as well. Hydration packs, sometimes used by athletes and military personnel, carry water (in either a bladder or a rigid bottle) and have a tube connected to them from which the wearer can drink without removing the pack; this feature is also included in some more general-purpose hiking backpacks. Backpacks that carry skateboards have also become more popular in the youth culture. https://i.pinimg.com/originals/d5/48/27/d54827120ebd94e38d06958cf729336a.jpg
External frame packs were designed to carry heavy loads (>20 kg or 40 lb), giving the wearer more support and protection and better weight distribution than a simple, frameless strapped bag. Wooden pack frames were used for centuries around the world. Ötzi the Iceman may have used one in Copper Age Alpine Italy, though some archaeologists believe the frame found with the body was part of a snowshoe. Such packs are common in military and mountaineering applications; metal versions first appeared in the mid-20th century. https://i.pinimg.com/236x/8d/6f/87/8d6f873a5f9b925fe764eecba26a075b.jpg
Sports and hydration backpacks are smaller with a profile closer to the body, wider straps and can come with water bladders and hip belts for running, cycling or hiking. Running hydration packs are the smallest and lightest, many under 2 litres and most under six litres. Compression straps across the top of one's body are common as are hip belts. Cycling hydration packs are six to ten litres sitting high on the back. Although daypacks are small averaging ten to thirty litres, all Trekking and Hiking hydration packs are generally the largest and heaviest. Thirty five up to sixty five litres and above are common. https://i.pinimg.com/originals/79/c5/c0/79c5c0d6076a65d86321de0bc5cca530.jpg
Backpacks in general fall into one of four categories: frameless, external frame, internal frame, and bodypack. A pack frame, when present, serves to support the pack and distribute the weight of its contents across the body more appropriately, by transferring much of the weight to the hips and legs. Most of the weight is therefore taken off the shoulders, reducing the chance of injury from shoulder strap pressure (many backpacks equipped solely with shoulder straps can affect the posture of a person carrying more than 14 kg (30 lbs)), as well as being less restrictive of the upper body range of motion. Most backpacks are capable of being closed with either a buckle mechanism, a zipper, or a dry-bag type closure, though a few models use a drawstring fitted with a cord lock for the main compartment.
Large backpacks, used to carry loads over 10 kilograms (22 lb), as well as smaller sports backpacks (e.g. running, cycling, hiking and hydration), usually offload the largest part (up to about 90%) of their weight onto padded hip belts, leaving the shoulder straps mainly for stabilising the load. This improves the potential to carry heavy loads, as the hips are stronger than the shoulders, and also increases agility and balance, since the load rides nearer the wearer's own center of mass.
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